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        經濟學人:萊克星頓專欄--美國史上最混亂總統辯論落幕(1)

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        United States

        美國版塊
        Lexington
        萊克星頓專欄
        The end of the debate
        總統辯論的結束
        The president turns a globally respected American institution into a national embarrassment
        特朗普總統使本來備受推崇的競選辯論這一美國制度淪為全國笑柄。
        Among the institutions Donald Trump has attacked in the past three and a half years, the televised presidential debate might not seem much. It does not guarantee the rule of law, protect the environment or defend the homeland. It has hardly ever been electorally significant. Maybe only the first televised duel, which pitted a sweaty, shady looking Richard Nixon against a youthful, make-up wearing John Kennedy in 1960, materially affected a race. Yet at a time when some of the most basic assumptions about American democracy are being challenged by Mr Trump’s scorched-earth presidency, as he illustrated with a debate performance of stunning brutishness in Cleveland on September 29th, the merits of the format are worth recalling.
        在過去三年半中,唐納德·特朗普抨擊了許多制度,但是他卻沒怎么提到總統電視辯論??偨y電視辯論既不能保障法治,也不能保護環境,更沒法保衛國家。它對于大選的影響并不大。也許只有1960年進行的第一屆總統電視辯論實質性地影響到了美國大選。當時,滿頭大汗、臉色陰暗的理查德·尼克松與年輕且化著妝的約翰·肯尼迪進行了對決。然而,美國民主的一些最基本的假定正在被特朗普的焦土政策毀壞,正如9月29日在克利夫蘭舉行的首場總統辯論上,特朗普的魯莽表現令人咂舌。這時,總統電視辯論形式的優點令人回顧。

        20201003_USD000.jpg

        Before this week they were threefold. The president, setting aside the exalted status and electoral advantages of incumbency, must submit to the same pre-agreed rules as his challenger. (No president since Nixon, following his humiliation in 1960, has ducked the format.) Second— and notwithstanding a mountain of evidence that most people do not vote on the basis of such things— debates affirm the importance of plans and ideas. This projects a degree of seriousness that is otherwise largely absent from most political coverage.

        這個星期之前舉辦過的總統電視辯論有三點值得懷念??偨y要拋開崇高地位和在任優勢,和競爭者一樣遵從相同的預先商定的規則。(自1960年尼克松受辱以來,沒有一位總統回避過這種形式。)其次,電視辯論肯定了總統的計劃和想法的重要性,盡管有大量證據表明,大多數人不會基于這些東西進行投票。這表明了某種程度的嚴肅性,而這一點被大多數政治報道所忽視。
        The candidates’ competing proposals also underline the degree to which elections are a choice. And because they are essentially making their pitches to a vast television audience, the debates also underline how that the choice falls to ordinary Americans. Boosted by a paucity of campaigning because of covid-19, the 90-minute, ad-free event in Cleveland was watched by an estimated 80m, over half the electorate. Millions more watched around the world— which speaks to a third quality of the presidential debate.
        候選人的競選提案也凸顯了選舉的選擇程度??偨y電視辯論實際上是在向廣大電視觀眾宣傳,因此辯論也強調了這種選擇權是如何落入普通美國人手中的。受到新冠肺炎疫情的影響,競選活動寥寥無幾,在克利夫蘭舉行的為時90分鐘的無廣告的活動吸引了8000萬觀眾,超過半數選民觀看。世界各地有數百萬人觀看了這場總統辯論。這表明了總統電視辯論值得懷念的第三個方面。

        譯文由可可原創,僅供學習交流使用,未經許可請勿轉載。

        重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
        environment [in'vaiərənmənt]

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        n. 環境,外界

         
        debate [di'beit]

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        n. 辯論,討論
        vt. 爭論,思考

        聯想記憶
        vast [vɑ:st]

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        adj. 巨大的,廣闊的
        n. 浩瀚的太

         
        affirm [ə'fə:m]

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        vt. 證實,斷言,肯定
        vi. 斷言,申明

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        status ['steitəs]

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        n. 地位,身份,情形,狀況

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        paucity ['pɔ:siti]

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        n. 少數,少量

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        performance [pə'fɔ:məns]

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        n. 表演,表現; 履行,實行
        n. 性能,本

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        embarrassment [im'bærəsmənt]

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        n. 困窘,尷尬,困難

         
        protect [prə'tekt]

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        vt. 保護,投保

        聯想記憶
        quality ['kwɔliti]

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        n. 品質,特質,才能
        adj. 高品質的

         
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